Indications for Breast MRI

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17 Indications for Breast MRI The expedient use of breast MRI requires several aspects to be taken into consideration: Widely accepted indications for the performance of breast MRI include the…

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Diagnostic Criteria

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5 Diagnostic Criteria As in other areas of imaging-based diagnostics, the evaluation of a breast MRI examination entails both the detection and also the characterization of suspicious lesions. High-quality MRI…

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Differential Diagnosis and Strategy

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18 Differential Diagnosis and Strategy Solitary Focus Common diagnoses. Focal adenosis, adenoma/fibroadenoma, papilloma. Rare diagnoses. Lobulus, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive carcinoma, intramammary lymph node, phyllodes tumor. Strategy. See…

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Malignant Changes

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12 Malignant Changes Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Synonyms: not otherwise specified (NOS). Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is defined as a malignant tumor of the breast partially or wholly lacking specific histological…

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Technique and Methods

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3 Technique and Methods Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Since Paul Lauterbur published his first reports on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 30 years ago, it has developed into the…

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Autologous and Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction

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14 Autologous and Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction In general, breast plastic surgery techniques are performed for breast size reduction (Fig. 14.1), breast augmentation, and breast reconstruction. Reconstruction of the female breast…

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Artifacts and Sources of Error

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6 Artifacts and Sources of Error Incorrect Positioning The patient to be examined is typically placed in the prone position. Ideally, the breasts are examined in a hanging position in…

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Postoperative/Posttraumatic Changes

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9 Postoperative/Posttraumatic Changes Fat Necrosis Synonyms: liponecrosis microcystica calcificata. Fat necrosis is a localized area of dead adipose tissue characterized by morphological changes resulting from progressive enzymatic degradation. Leukocytic and…

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Normal Findings in Breast MRI

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7 Normal Findings in Breast MRI Morphology The adult female breast is composed of three different tissue components: skin, subcutaneous tissue, and breast tissue (parenchyma and stroma). Skin. The skin…

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Borderline Lesions

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10 Borderline Lesions Papilloma Papillomas are characterized histopathologically as intraductal tumors composed of benign epithelial cells covering a central branching fibrovascular core. They are generally differentiated to include solitary intraductal…

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