Blood Gases and Acid-Base Disorders

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Blood Gases and Acid-Base Disorders

DEFINITIONS Print Section Listen pH = power of Hydrogen defined by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH=pK+log ([HCO3−]/0.03 PCO2) Acidosis = decrease in arterial pH Respiratory acidosis – caused by CO2 retention. This increases…

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Mechanical Ventilation

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Mechanical Ventilation

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Mechanical ventilation is provided to ensure adequate oxygenation and minute ventilation. The means to achieve these goals will vary depending upon the lung pathophysiology. Indications to…

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Cardiovascular Formulas and Parameters

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Cardiovascular Formulas and Parameters

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Arterial oxygen content of the blood: CaO2(mL O2​/dL)=(SaO2× Hemoglobin × 1.36) + 0.003*(PaO2) 0.003*PaO2 represents the fraction of dissolved oxygen in the blood Venous oxygen content of the blood: CvO2(mL O2​/dL)=(SvO2× Hemoglobin × 1.36) + 0.003*(PvO2) Arterial-mixed venous…

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Postoperative Management after Cardiac Surgery

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Postoperative Management after Cardiac Surgery

ANESTHESIA/SURGICAL HANDOFF Print Section Listen A thorough understanding of what occurred intraoperatively is critical to postoperative management after cardiac surgery. Cardiac Anesthesia: Induction technique and maintenance of anesthesia depend on…

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Congestive Heart Failure

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Congestive Heart Failure

BACKGROUND Print Section Listen Heart failure is a syndrome of cardiac dysfunction that, left untreated, results in the myocardium’s inability to maintain adequate cardiac output.1 It may present as systolic…

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Vasoactive Agents

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Vasoactive Agents

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Vasoactive medications and inotropic agents are utilized frequently in the pediatric intensive care unit for patients in various states of shock. Selecting the proper pharmacologic therapy…

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Hypertension

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Hypertension

DEFINITIONS Print Section Listen Prehypertension is defined as blood pressures between the 90th and 95th percentiles for age, gender, and height.1 Note that these definitions are based on blood pressures…

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Respiratory Formulas and Parameters

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Respiratory Formulas and Parameters

PULMONARY VOLUMES Print Section Listen Minute (or Total) Ventilation MV = Tidal Volume (VT) × Respiratory Rate (RR) Tidal Volume VT = VA + VD Alveolar Ventilation (VA): inversely proportional…

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Shock

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Shock

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Shock is a state of circulatory dysfunction that results in insufficient oxygen delivery and other substrate to meet tissue metabolic demands.1 Inadequate oxygen delivery leads to…

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Sepsis

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Sepsis

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that is characterized by an inflammatory response caused by an infection. Identifying and treating sepsis early is key to saving lives….

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