22. Pediatrics

Dec 11, 2021 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on 22. Pediatrics

“The child is the father of a man.” 22.1 Few Important Points in Pediatrics Parents bring in a child with concern for increased crying/irritability, decreased feeding, and playing: If persistent-something…

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19. Obstetrics

Dec 11, 2021 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on 19. Obstetrics

The power of modern medicine can never be understated: Source: CDC, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. 19.1 Introduction When a patient is planning to become pregnant Start folate supplementation (0.4…

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21. Male Reproduction

Dec 11, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on 21. Male Reproduction

The continuity of any species requires an efficient system for multiplication. It is not only survival of the fittest, but also survival of the most efficient reproducers. A sagittal view…

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20. Gynecology

Dec 11, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on 20. Gynecology

Ninety-five percent of ovarian cancers arise from the epithelial portion and only 5% are germ-cell tumors. As opposed to this, 90% of testicular cancers arise from germ cells. The reason…

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Urology for the urogynecologist

Nov 27, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on Urology for the urogynecologist

Basics of urinary stone disease Introduction One out of 13 women will become symptomatic with a kidney stone in her lifetime; that incidence is rising in the United States resulting…

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Urethral diverticula

Nov 27, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on Urethral diverticula

Introduction For years, investigators who described their experience with urethral diverticula stated that more general awareness of this condition must prevail to improve its identification. Urethral diverticula can be difficult…

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Lower urinary tract fistulas

Nov 27, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on Lower urinary tract fistulas

Historic perspectives The earliest evidence of gynecologic fistula dates back millennia, to Queen Henhenit, one of the wives of King Mentuhotep II of Egypt (11th Dynasty, c. 2050 bc). In…

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Full-thickness rectal prolapse

Nov 27, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on Full-thickness rectal prolapse

Introduction Full-thickness rectal prolapse is a benign but debilitating condition involving full-thickness descent of the rectum through the anal canal ( Fig. 30.1 ). It is important to distinguish full-thickness…

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Refractory overactive bladder

Nov 27, 2021 by in GYNECOLOGY Comments Off on Refractory overactive bladder

Introduction Overactive bladder (OAB) is characterized by urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia, if there is no proven infection or…

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