Increased Intracranial Pressure

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Increased Intracranial Pressure

DEFINITION AND NORMAL INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE VALUES Print Section Listen Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cerebral ventricles. ICP is the product of the rate…

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Status Epilepticus

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Status Epilepticus

DEFINITION Print Section Listen Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as 5 minutes or more of (1) continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity or (2) recurrent seizure activity without recovery (returning…

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Neurosurgical and Neurologic Emergencies

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Neurosurgical and Neurologic Emergencies

NEUROSURGICAL EMERGENCIES Print Section Listen MONRO KELLIE DOCTRINE Physiology: Most cases of neurosurgical emergencies are related to the volume-occupying relationship between the brain matter, cerebral blood volume, and cerebrospinal fluid…

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Neurologic Formulas and Parameters

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Neurologic Formulas and Parameters

INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE Print Section Listen Normal 0 to 20 mmHg CEREBRAL PERFUSION PRESSURE (CPP) Print Section Listen Formula: CPP = Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) − Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Infants: 40…

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Heart Transplantation

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Heart Transplantation

INDICATIONS FOR HEART TRANSPLANT Print Section Listen Heart transplantation can be utilized in patients with end-stage heart failure that is refractory to medical and surgical management. Common indications for transplant:…

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Mechanical Circulatory Support

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Mechanical Circulatory Support

INDICATIONS FOR MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT Print Section Listen Children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure that is refractory to medical management may require mechanical cardiorespiratory support. Transient respiratory and/or circulatory…

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Cardiac Defects and Surgical Repairs

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Cardiac Defects and Surgical Repairs

NORMAL CARDIAC ANATOMY (SEE FIGURE 34-1) Print Section Listen FIGURE 34-1 Normal cardiac anatomy. ACYANOTIC LESIONS Print Section Listen PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA) (SEE FIGURE 34-2) FIGURE 34-2 Patent ductus…

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Pediatric Airway Obstruction

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Pediatric Airway Obstruction

UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Print Section Listen AIRWAY PHYSICS Poiseuille’s law Q=ΔPπr48ηl; r = Radius of airway Flow (Q) is proportional to the radius to the fourth power; incremental changes in…

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Arrhythmias

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Arrhythmias

BASIC RHYTHM INTERPRETATION Print Section Listen Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of normal infants and children are different from those of normal adults. Neonates and infants will demonstrate right ventricular (RV) dominance related…

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Respiratory Mechanics and Respiratory Failure

Jan 14, 2019 by in PEDIATRICS Comments Off on Respiratory Mechanics and Respiratory Failure

RESPIRATORY MECHANICS Print Section Listen Developmental considerations Basal metabolic rate is higher in children than in adults, resulting in decreased metabolic reserve in the face of increased oxygen consumption during…

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