GENERAL

Integumentary System

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Integumentary System

The integumentary system consists of skin and its appendages: sweat glands, nails, hairs, sebaceous glands, arrector muscles of hairs (arrector pili muscles), mammary glands, and teeth. Development of Skin and…

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Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development

During the process of embryonic development, undifferentiated precursor cells differentiate and organize into the complex structures found in functional adult tissues. This intricate process requires cells to integrate many intrinsic…

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Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck

T he pharyngeal apparatus consists of pharyngeal arches, pouches, grooves, and membranes ( Fig. 9.1 ). These early embryonic structures contribute to the formation of the face and neck. Fig….

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Development of Limbs

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Development of Limbs

Early Stages of Limb Development 15 The upper limb buds are visible by day 24, and the lower limb buds appear 1 or 2 days later, with the activation of…

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Alimentary System

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Alimentary System

T he alimentary system (digestive system) is the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, with all its associated glands and organs. The primordial gut forms during the fourth…

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Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems

Chapter 1 1. The secondary sexual characteristics develop, reproductive functions begin, and sexual dimorphism becomes more obvious during puberty. The pubertal changes are not the same in males and females….

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Skeletal System

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Skeletal System

As the notochord and neural tube form in the third week, the intraembryonic mesoderm lateral to these structures thickens to form two longitudinal columns of paraxial mesoderm ( Fig. 14.1…

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Muscular System

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Muscular System

The muscular system develops from mesoderm , except for the muscles of the iris of the eye, which develop from neuroectoderm (neural crest cells) , and the muscles of the…

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Placenta and Fetal Membranes

Mar 31, 2020 by in GENERAL Comments Off on Placenta and Fetal Membranes

The placenta and fetal membranes separate the fetus from the endometrium , the inner layer of the uterine wall. An interchange of substances, such as nutrients and oxygen, occurs between…

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