OBSTETRICS

Cardiovascular Disorders

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Cardiovascular Disorders

FIGURE 49-1 Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among reproductive-aged women. DM = diabetes mellitus. (From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.) PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PREGNANCY Cardiovascular Physiology…

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Infectious Diseases

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Infectious Diseases

Pregnancy-Induced Immunological Changes Even after intensive study, many of the maternal immunological adaptations to pregnancy are not well elucidated. It is known that pregnancy is associated with an increase in…

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Contraception

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Contraception

TABLE 38-2. Contraceptive Failure Rates During the First Year of Method Use in Women in the United States Unfortunately, no contraceptive method is completely without side effects. That said, an…

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Cesarean Delivery and Peripartum Hysterectomy

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Cesarean Delivery and Peripartum Hysterectomy

Maternal Mortality and Morbidity To provide accurate informed consent, understanding both maternal and neonatal risks and benefits with surgery is essential. As a broad overview, cesarean delivery has higher maternal…

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Abortion

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Abortion

Pathogenesis More than 80 percent of spontaneous abortions occur within the first 12 weeks of gestation. With first-trimester losses, death of the embryo or fetus nearly always precedes spontaneous expulsion….

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Critical Care and Trauma

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Critical Care and Trauma

Organization of Critical Care The concept and development of critical care for all aspects of medicine and surgery began in the 1960s. The National Institutes of Health held a Consensus…

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Sexually Transmitted Infections

Pathogenesis and Transmission The causative agent for syphilis is Treponema pallidum. Minute abrasions on the vaginal mucosa provide an entry portal for the spirochete, and cervical eversion, hyperemia, and friability…

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Prenatal Diagnosis

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Prenatal Diagnosis

Risk Factors Selected risk factors for NTDs are listed in Table 14-1, and genetic factors represent the largest category. Isolated NTDs display multifactorial inheritance. The recurrence risk is approximately 3…

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Vaginal Delivery

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Vaginal Delivery

Delivery of the Head With each contraction, the vulvovaginal opening is dilated by the fetal head to gradually form an ovoid and finally, an almost circular opening (Fig. 27-1). This…

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The Puerperium

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on The Puerperium

INVOLUTION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT Birth Canal Return to the nonpregnant state begins soon after delivery. The vagina and its outlet gradually diminish in size but rarely regain their nulliparous…

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