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- Sensory nerve terminals exist on all body surfaces by 22–29 wk of gestation.
- Pain assessment should be performed using validated tools in all patients upon admission and then at regularly defined intervals.
- Physiologic responses to pain include increased circulating levels of catecholamines, increased HR, and increased BP.
- Repeated or long-term painful stimuli result in long-term changes such as a lowered pain threshold.
- Response to painful stimuli contribute to physiologic disturbances such as hypoxia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and hyperglycemia; this may lead to alterations in oxygen delivery and cerebral blood flow.
- Infants have long-term disturbances in pain perception that persist well into childhood.
- An absence of behavioral or physiologic cues that might indicate pain does not indicate an absence of pain.
- Swaddling: Keeping the extremities flexed and close to the trunk
- Pacifiers: Used for non-nutritive sucking
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