Parental age: Women aged <15 or >35 y have higher risks of fetal aneuploidy. Women and men aged >40-45 y have higher risk of offspring with de novo monogenic diseases.
Chronic diseases: Diabetes, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, thyroid diseases, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, venous thromboembolic disease, kidney diseases, epilepsy, seizures, psychiatric diseases, rheumatoid arthritis.
Drugs: Assess potential teratogenic effects.
Rubella and Varicella: Evaluate vaccination, infection, or serology. If not immunized, vaccinate before pregnancy; after application, wait 30 days to start pregnancy search.
Identify risks factors of hepatitis B infection (routine serological test not recommended).
Recommend to avoid consumption of poorly washed vegetables or fruits and poorly cooked meats due to risk of toxoplasmosis infection (routine serological test not recommended).
Evaluate risks of sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, HIV, gonorrhea, syphilis).
Gynecological and obstetric history:
Menstrual cycles, contraceptive methods, history of abnormal Pap smear, sterility, endometriosis, inflammatory pelvic disease.
Number of pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, deliveries, cesarean deliveries, duration of labor, complications such as PROM, premature birth, gestational diabetes, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, postpartum depression.
Lifestyle and habits:
Nutrition, physical activity, drug consumption, consumption of illicit drugs, alcohol, smoking, environmental exposure.
Family History: Three-Generation Family Tree
Genetic diseases: Cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy, hemoglobinopathies, hemophilia, fragile X syndrome, phenylketonuria, Tay-Sachs disease, skeletal dysplasias, syndromic congenital heart disease.
Multifactorial congenital malformations: Spina bifida, anencephaly, palatal/lip cleft, hypospadias, congenital cardiopathies, other.
Family diseases with a genetic component: Intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, premature atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, psychosis, epilepsy, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, hearing loss/deafness, severe ophthalmological diseases.
Ethnicity: Some genetic diseases are more frequent in certain ethnic groups (eg, Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi Jews, thalassemia in individuals of Mediterranean descent).
Consanguinity: Increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases.
HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PROM, premature rupture of membranes.