Placenta Previa



Placenta Previa


Bahram Salmanian

Michael A. Belfort

Alireza A. Shamshirsaz



GENERAL PRINCIPLES



Physical Examination



  • Placenta previa should be considered for all pregnant women presenting with vaginal bleeding after 20 weeks of gestation.


  • Digital cervical examination should be avoided until placenta previa is ruled out.


  • Cautious sterile speculum vaginal examination may be performed to evaluate the amount of bleeding with specific caution not to cause further bleeding by disturbing any placenta that may be covering the internal cervical os. Gentle transabdominal ultrasound examination may be helpful as a first step if available and can give important information that may allow avoidance of pelvic examination. In those cases where transabdominal ultrasound is not helpful, gentle transvaginal ultrasound examination, avoiding placement of the probe too forcefully or deeply into the vaginal canal or the cervical os, may confirm the diagnosis.







  • Fetal evaluation can be performed by asking about fetal movements and by monitoring the fetal heart rate tracing.


  • Definitive diagnosis is generally made via imaging (see the section for imaging and other diagnostics).


  • It is essential to obtain accurate obstetrical and surgical history as placenta previa significantly increases the risk of placenta accreta spectrum in cases of prior cesarean delivery or uterine surgeries (4).


Differential Diagnosis



  • Placenta previa should be considered in any case of vaginal bleeding in pregnancy. The most common differentials are the following:



    • Labor, bloody show


    • Placental abruption


    • Vasa previa


    • Vaginal, cervical, or uterine pathology or injury


    • Uterine rupture


    • Before 20 weeks of gestation, cervical insufficiency and early pregnancy loss should be considered.


Nonoperative Management



  • Serial ultrasound monitoring of placental location before delivery as described in the section for imaging


  • Vaginal bleeding should be monitored, and precautions should be given to the patient regarding pelvic rest (specifically no sexual intercourse or vaginal penetration).


IMAGING AND OTHER DIAGNOSTICS



  • Universal screening for placental location during the midtrimester anatomy scan



  • Diagnosis is usually made by identifying placental tissue covering the internal cervical os with the use of ultrasound in the second or third trimester (including careful transvaginal ultrasound) (Figures 4.8.2 and 4.8.3). The distance of the placental edge from the internal os should be documented if placental tissue is not actually impinging or covering the os.


  • If the placenta is not covering the internal cervical os, but the lower placental edge is <2 cm from the os, a diagnosis of “low-lying placenta” is made (Figure 4.8.4).


  • Several views of the placenta should be obtained in multiple planes, including the sagittal and transverse planes, with a full, partially full, and empty bladder if necessary to confirm the diagnosis.


  • Up to 55% of placenta previa diagnosed at 20 to 23 weeks of gestation will resolve by the time of delivery if the patient has no history of cesarean delivery (5).


  • If a diagnosis of placenta previa or low-lying placenta is made in the second trimester, follow-up ultrasound should be performed at 32 weeks to reevaluate placental location. If there is persistent previa, a repeat follow-up ultrasound at 36 weeks is warranted (6).


  • Specific evaluation of the cord insertion and fetal vessels is important because placenta previa increases the risk of velamentous cord insertion and vasa previa (especially when there is a low-lying placenta).


  • Diagnosis may be challenging with advancing gestational age because of fetal parts obscuring the placental views.


  • Always evaluate the placenta and uteroplacental interface for signs of placenta accreta spectrum when making a diagnosis of low-lying placenta or placenta previa.


  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be reserved for cases of complicated placenta previa including suspicion for placenta accreta spectrum.


PREOPERATIVE PLANNING

Sep 9, 2022 | Posted by in OBSTETRICS | Comments Off on Placenta Previa
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