Normal Values




Chemistry Values




Table C-1

Blood Chemistry Values in Premature Infants during the First 7 Weeks of Life (Birth Weight 1500-1750 g)

Adapted from Thomas J, Reichelderfer T: Premature infants: analysis of serum during the first seven weeks, Clin Chem 14:272, 1968.


































































































































Age 1 Week Age 3 Weeks Age 5 Weeks Age 7 Weeks
Constituent Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD Range
Na (mEq/L) 139.6 ± 3.2 133-146 136.3 ± 2.9 129-142 136.8 ± 2.5 133-148 137.2 ± 1.8 133-142
K (mEq/L) 5.6 ± 0.5 4.6-6.7 5.8 ± 0.6 4.5-7.1 5.5 ± 0.6 4.5-6.6 5.7 ± 0.5 4.6-7.1
Cl (mEq/L) 108.2 ± 3.7 100-117 108.3 ± 3.9 102-116 107.0 ± 3.5 100-115 107.0 ± 3.3 101-115
CO 2 (mmol/L) 20.3 ± 2.8 13.8-27.1 18.4 ± 3.5 12.4-26.2 20.4 ± 3.4 12.5-26.1 20.6 ± 3.1 13.7-26.9
Ca (mg/dL) 9.2 ± 1.1 6.1-11.6 9.6 ± 0.5 8.1-11.0 9.4 ± 0.5 8.6-10.5 9.5 ± 0.7 8.6-10.8
P (mg/dL) 7.6 ± 1.1 5.4-10.9 7.5 ± 0.7 6.2-8.7 7.0 ± 0.6 5.6-7.9 6.8 ± 0.8 4.2-8.2
BUN (mg/dL) 9.3 ± 5.2 3.1-25.5 13.3 ± 7.8 2.1-31.4 13.3 ± 7.1 2.0-26.5 13.4 ± 6.7 2.5-30.5
Total protein (g/dL) 5.49 ± 0.42 4.40-6.26 5.38 ± 0.48 4.28-6.70 4.98 ± 0.50 4.14-6.90 4.93 ± 0.61 4.02-5.86
Albumin (g/dL) 3.85 ± 0.30 3.28-4.50 3.92 ± 0.42 3.16-5.26 3.73 ± 0.34 3.20-4.34 3.89 ± 0.53 3.40-4.60
Globulin (g/dL) 1.58 ± 0.33 0.88-2.20 1.44 ± 0.63 0.62-2.90 1.17 ± 0.49 0.48-1.48 1.12± 0.33 0.5-2.60
Hb (g/dL) 17.8 ± 2.7 11.4-24.8 14.7 ± 2.1 9.0-19.4 11.5 ± 2.0 7.2-18.6 10.0 ± 1.3 7.5-13.9

BUN, Blood urea nitrogen; Hb, hemoglobin; SD, standard deviation.


Table C-2

Measured Variables in Cord and Whole Venous Blood in Healthy Term Neonates

From Dollberg S, Bauer R, Lubetzky R, et al: A reappraisal of neonatal blood chemistry reference ranges using the Nova M electrodes, Am J Perinatol 18:433, 2001.


































































































Cord Blood 2- to 4-Hour Blood
Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD Range
pH 7.35 ± 0.05 7.19-7.42 7.36 ± 0.04 7.27-7.45
P co 2 (mm Hg) 40 ± 6 24.5-56.7 43 ± 7 30-65
Hct (%) 48 ± 5 37-60 57 ± 5 42-67
Hb (g/L) 1.65 ± 0.16 1.29-2.06 1.90 ± 0.22 0.88-2.3
Na + (mmol/L) 138 ± 3 129-144 137 ± 3 130-142
K + (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 1.3 3.4-9.9 5.2 ± 0.5 4.4-6.4
Cl (mmol/L) 107 ± 4 100-121 111 ± 5 105-125
iCa (mmol/L) 1.15 ± 0.35 0.21-1.5 1.13 ± 0.08 0.9-1.3
iMg (mmol/L) 0.28 ± 0.06 0.09-0.39 0.30 ± 0.05 0.23-0.46
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.16 ± 1.05 0.16-6.66 3.50 ± 0.67 5.11-16.10
Glucose (mg/dL) 75 ± 19 2.9-120 63 ± 12 29-92
Lactate (mmol/L) 4.6 ± 1.9 1.1-9.6 3.9 ± 1.5 1.6-9.8
BUN (mmol/L) 2.14 ± 0.61 1.07-3.57 2.53 ± 0.71 1.43-4.28
BUN (mg/dL) 6.0 ± 1.7 3.0-10.0 7.1 ± 2.0 4-12

BUN, Blood urea nitrogen; Hb, hemoglobin; Hct, hematocrit; iCa, ionized calcium; iMg, ionized magnesium; SD, standard deviation.


Table C-3

Plasma Ammonia Levels in Preterm Infants of ≤32 Weeks’ Gestational Age

Modified from Usmanii SS, Cavaliere T, Casatelli J, et al: Plasma ammonia levels in very low birth weight preterm infants, J Pediatr 123:798, 1993.











































Ammonia Level
Age (days) μmol/L μg/dL
Birth 71 ± 26 121 ± 45
1 69 ± 22 117 ± 37
3 60 ± 19 103 ± 33
7 42 ± 14 72 ± 24
14 42 ± 18 72 ± 30
21 43 ± 16 73 ± 28
28 42 ± 15 72 ± 25
Term infants at birth 45 ± 9 77 ± 16

Values represent mean ± 1 standard deviation unit.


Plasma ammonia level declines significantly from birth to 7 days of age ( P <.01).



Table C-4

Liver Function Test Values

Adapted from Rosenthal P: Assessing liver function and hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, Clin Chem 43:228, 1997.
















































Test Age Value
Albumin (g/L) 0-5 days (<2.5 kg)
0-5 days (>2.5 kg)
1-30 days
31-182 days
183-365 days
20-36
26-36
26-43
28-46
28-48
Prothrombin time (sec) 1 day (30-36 wk of gestation)
5 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
30 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
90 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
180 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
10.6-16.2
10.0-15.3
10.0-13.6
10.0-14.6
10.0-15.0
1 day
5 days
30 days
90 days
180 days
11.6-14.4
10.9-13.9
10.6-13.1
10.8-13.1
11.5-13.1
Partial thromboplastin time (sec) 1 day (30-36 wk of gestation)
5 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
30 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
90 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
180 days (30-36 wk of gestation)
27.5-79.4
26.9-74.1
26.9-62.5
28.3-50.7
21.7-53.3
1 day
5 days
30 days
90 days
180 days
37.1-48.7
34.0-51.2
33.0-47.8
30.6-43.6
31.8-39.2
Ammonia (μmol/L) 1-90 days
3-11 mo
42-144
34-133
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 0-5 days
1-3 yr
35-140
20-60
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 0-5 days
1-30 days
31-365 days
6-50
1-25
3-35
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 0-5 days
1-30 days
31-365 days
110-300
48-406
82-383
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/L) 0-5 days
1-182 days
183-365 days
34-263
12-132
1-39

For full-term infants unless otherwise noted.


Table C-5

Plasma-Serum Amino Acid Levels in Premature and Term Newborns (μmol/L)

From Behrman RE: Neonatal-perinatal medicine: diseases of the fetus and infant, ed 2, St Louis, 1977, Mosby, Appendix Table 20. Data from Dickinson JC, Rosenblum H, Hamilton PB: Ion exchange chromatography of the free amino acids in the plasma of the newborn infant, Pediatrics 36:2, 1965; and Dickinson JC, Rosenblum H, Hamilton PB: Ion exchange chromotography of the free amino acids in the plasma of infants under 2,500 gm at birth, Pediatrics 45:606, 1970.






































































































































Amino Acid Premature (First Day) Newborn (Before First Feeding) 16 Days to 4 Months
Taurine 105-255 101-181
Hydroxyproline 0-80 0
Aspartic acid 0-20 4-12 17-21
Threonine 155-275 196-238 141-213
Serine 195-345 129-197 104-158
Aspartate + Glutamate 655-1155 623-895
Proline 155-305 155-305 141-245
Glutamic acid 30-100 27-77
Glycine 185-735 274-412 178-248
Alanine 325-425 274-384 239-345
Valine 80-180 97-175 123-199
Cystine 55-75 49-75 33-51
Methionine 30-40 21-37 15-21
Isoleucine 20-60 31-47 31-47
Leucine 45-95 55-89 56-98
Tyrosine 20-220 53-85 33-75
Phenylalanine 70-110 64-92 45-65
Ornithine 70-110 66-116 37-61
Lysine 130-250 154-246 117-163
Histidine 30-70 61-93 64-92
Arginine 30-70 37-71 53-71
Tryptophan 15-45 15-45
Citrulline 8.5-23.7 10.8-21.1
Ethanolamine 13.4-10.5 32.7-72
α-Amino- n -butyric acid 0-29 8.7-20.4


Table C-6

Reference Serum Amino Acid Concentrations That Have Been Proposed as Standards for Neonates (μmol/L)

Modified from Hanning RM, Zlotkin SH: Amino acid and protein needs of the neonate: effects of excess and deficiency, Semin Perinatol 13:131, 1989. See also Moro G, Minoli I, Boehm G, et al: Postprandial plasma amino acids in preterm infants: influence of the protein source, Acta Paediatr 88:885, 1999.




















































































Amino Acid Term Infant Fed Human Milk Cord Blood
Isoleucine 26-93 21-76
Leucine 53-169 47-120
Lysine 80-231 181-456
Methionine 22-50 8-42
Phenylalanine 22-71 24-87
Threonine 34-168 108-327
Tryptophan 18-101 19-98
Valine 88-222 98-276
Alanine 125-647 186-494
Arginine 42-148 28-162
Aspartic acid 5-51 18 ± 17
Glutamic acid 24-243 92 ± 57
Glycine 77-376 123-312
Histidine 34-119 42-136
Proline 82-319 72-278
Serine 0-326 57-174
Taurine 1-167 41-461
Tyrosine 38-119 34-83
Cystine 35-132 4-37


Table C-7

Reference Intervals for Urine Amino Acid Excretion in Untimed Samples (mmol per mol creatinine)

Modified from Venta R: Year-long validation study and reference values for urinary amino acids using a reverse-phase HPLC method, Clin Chem 47:575, 2001.
























































































































































Amino Acid 0-1 Months (Mean) 1-12 Months (Mean)
Aspartic acid 9-57 (23) 10-69 (26)
Glutamic acid 31-96 (54) 24-102 (50)
α-Aminoadipic acid 7-96 (26) 7-110 (29)
Hydroxyproline 11-556 (100) 5-238 (34)
Phosphoethanolamine 13-167 (46) 12-216 (51)
Serine 48-509 (156) 34-329 (51)
Asparagine 15-223 (58) 18-197 (59)
Glycine 127-2042 (510) 133-894 (345)
Glutamine 37-600 (148) 63-446 (168)
β-Alanine 2-41 (8) 2-38 (8)
Taurine 12-1057 10-809
Histidine 23-676 (125) 69-392 (164)
Citrulline 1-18 (5) 2-46 (9)
Threonine 9-337 (56) 12-145 (41)
Alanine 34-358 (109) 27-313 (93)
β-Aminoisobutyric acid 0-520 (14) 5-258 (36)
Carnosine 3-184 (21) 8-160 (36)
Arginine 0-81 (10) 0-40 (5)
Proline 3-257 (29) 2-90 (14)
1-Methylhistidine 0-78 (7) 0-98 (7)
3-Methylhistidine 5-85 (20) 10-95 (31)
Ethanolamine 33-253 (91) 57-221 (112)
Aminobutyric acid 1-43 (5) 1-58 (7)
Tyrosine 5-74 (19) 12-64 (28)
Valine 3-34 (10) 3-43 (11)
Methionine 2-24 (7) 2-18 (6)
Cystathionine 1-26 (6) 1-11 (4)
Cystine 5-109 (24) 2-42 (10)
Isoleucine 2-37 (8) 2-21 (6)
Leucine 4-84 (17) 4-72 (17)
Hydroxylysine 3-49 (11) 2-50 (9)
Phenylalanine 2-49 (9) 7-42 (17)
Tryptophan 1-46 (8) 3-37 (10)
Ornithine 2-37 (8) 2-19 (6)
Lysine 6-464 (54) 4-80 (18)
No. of subjects (male/female) 20 (11/9) 30 (16/14)

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Sep 29, 2019 | Posted by in PEDIATRICS | Comments Off on Normal Values
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