Martin et al. 
Buhligen et al. 
Handler et al. 
Significant adhesions at initial placement
Failed due to adhesions
V pleural shunt
Failed peritoneal placement
The complications of primary or redo VPS insertion are the same as those discussed under indications for surgery for complications of VPS. Those patients who require shunt revisions have a history of progressive difficulties reaching the abdominal cavity, intra-abdominal adhesions, CSF pseudocyst formation, and difficulty retrieving dislocated catheters . Laparoscopic techniques have not decreased the overall shunt failure rate .
Laparoscopy is safe and useful in inserting primary and redo VPS and in managing distal complications of VPS.
Minimize CO2 insufflation to reduce hypercapnia.
Abdominal surgical history is important in operative planning and may dictate port placement.
Acharya R, Ramachandran CS, Singh S. Laparoscopic management of abdominal complications in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech. 2001;11(3):167–70.CrossRef