Cutis marmorata This term means “marbled skin” and is intended to describe the appearance of the skin in which the terminal vessels are so superficial and dilated that they are constantly visible in patterns that vaguely suggest veined marble. This condition is physiologic in the newborn and represents a vasomotor response to lowering of the environmental temperature. Persistent cutis marmorata is seen in Down syndrome and in trisomy 18.
Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita
Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita This condition is present at birth and consists of accentuated vascular markings (cutis marmorata), along with areas of telangiectasia, and occasionally ulceration, and atrophy. The lesions may be localized, usually to a lower extremity or generalized.
Livedo reticularis Livedo means a slate-gray blueness. Reticularis means “like a net.” The term describes a network of gray-blueness that is generally seen on the lower extremities. The idiopathic form of this disorder, most common in young women, carries a good prognosis. However, livedo reticularis is also seen in association with polyarteritis nodosa, SLE, and cryoglobulinemia.
Nevus Simplex (Salmon Patch)
Nevus simplex (salmon patch) Nevus simplex is by far the most common vascular lesion in the newborn. This midline or symmetrical pink macular lesion is most commonly seen on the eyelids, the nape of the neck, and the glabella. The last two are commonly described as “stork bite” and “angel’s kiss,” respectively. The glabellar lesion in Fig. 23-5 can be expected to resolve spontaneously, as do lesions on the eyelids. Rarely, a nevus simplex on the neck may persist into adult life.
Port-wine stain This unilateral vascular malformation has a markedly different histology, significance, and natural history from that of the nevus simplex. The port-wine stain is made up of capillary ectasias that may be present throughout the dermis and that gradually increase with age. The color may change from pink to purple as the patient grows, and the lesions may become nodular during adult life. Because port-wine stains show no tendency to involute, they may represent a significant, lifelong cosmetic problem.
Sturge-Weber syndrome Certain port-wine stains, occurring on the face, may be associated with ocular and cerebral vascular malformations. It is now recognized that the danger of this occurrence correlates with the exact location of the skin lesions, and is related to the embryonic vasculature of the face.
Hemangioma Infantile hemangioma is the most common benign vascular tumor that may occur during infancy. The vast majority of hemangiomas do not require treatment, and resolve spontaneously over time. Hemangiomas may be present at birth, or more commonly, develop during the first few months of life. The most rapid growth occurs during those months, and, for most, continues until 6 months of age. Some hemangiomas continue to increase in size until 1 year of age. Resolution of the hemangioma takes several years, and in some cases, may not be complete.
An additional important risk related to hemangioma is disfigurement and scarring. This is most significant for lesions involving the central face and, especially, the nose. In some cases, depending on the morphology, location, and growth stage of the hemangioma, early intervention is critical. The treatment of choice is oral propranolol, but topical timolol can be used to treat very superficial lesions.
Hemangioma Illustrated in Fig. 23-13 is an example of segmental hemangioma. In contrast the localized nodular lesions seen in previous figures, this lesion is a plaque from which areas of vascular proliferation arise.
Segmental hemangiomas in the diaper area may be associated with a variety of underlying anatomic abnormalities. The acronym LUMBAR syndrome denotes Lower body hemangioma and other cutaneous defects, Urogenital anomalies, ulceration, Myelopathy, Bony deformities, Anorectal malformations, arterial anomalies, and Renal anomalies.
Hemangioma The hemangiomas in Figs. 23-15 and 23-16 have a large deep component and a superficial overlying area of vascular discoloration. The lesion in Fig. 23-16 is beginning to show spontaneous involution of the superficial component. Note that the central part of the superficial component is lightening and becoming blue-gray.
When deep hemangiomas involute, redundancy of overlying skin may remain. Frequently no treatment is needed, but if necessary, and depending on the location, plastic surgery may be required to improve appearance. Pulsed dye laser is of value in treating the residual superficial component of such a lesion.
Hemangioma (ulcerated) During the growth phase of hemangiomas, especially in the groin area and buttocks (Figs. 23-21 and 23-22), ulceration may develop. The initial sign of ulceration, which is the most common complication of hemangioma, may be an area of crusting which may then enlarge and bleed. Ulcerated lesions on the scalp (Fig. 23-23) are more prone to bleeding given the increased vascularity of that area, and life-threatening bleeding has been reported in a number of hemangiomas.