Genitals

and Marcelo Zugaib4



(1)
São Paulo University, Bauru, Brazil

(2)
Parisian University, Bauru, France

(3)
Member of International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society, Bauru, Brazil

(4)
Obstetrics, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil

 



The accuracy of fetal sex determination on ultrasound improves as pregnancy advances. Genital morphology is similar for both genders up to the 11th gestational week, and the external genital differentiation takes place by the 14th week owing to hormonal influence on the genital tubercle. Therefore, ultrasound diagnosis of fetal sex is inaccurate before the 11th gestation week.

A385010_1_En_11_Fig1_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.1
Mid-sagittal view of a fetus showing normal male sex at 13 weeks and 2 days’ gestation. This is the standard view for the assessment of the first-trimester genital tubercle and determination of fetal sex. A crown–rump length measurement above 75 mm has nearly 100% diagnostic accuracy


A385010_1_En_11_Fig2_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.2
. Low transverse view of the fetal perineum showing regular male genitalia (arrow)


A385010_1_En_11_Fig3_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.3
After obtaining a transversal cut from the same case of last figure one can obliquate the view to get fetal scrotum and penis analysed (arrow)


A385010_1_En_11_Fig4_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.4
Fetal penis erection at 25 weeks gestation. P = penis, BE =scrotum, F = femur


A385010_1_En_11_Fig5_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.5
Male fetal genitalia showing physiological hydrocele. BE = scrotum, arrow = penis, CU = umbilical cord


A385010_1_En_11_Fig6_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.6
Male genitalia demonstrating penile urethra (arrows)


A385010_1_En_11_Fig7_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.7
Typical male external genitalia. arrow = penis, BE scrotum, U urethra


A385010_1_En_11_Fig8_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.8
Longitudinal (left) and coronal (right) views of the fetal perineum showing a case of ectopic testis. The abnormally small scrotum due to the absence of testes is noticed. When the ectopic testes are associated with renal dilatation, it is advisable to consider the hypothesis of prune belly syndrome. Otherwise, it may be only an occasional finding. The assisting neonatologist should always be informed about such findings


A385010_1_En_11_Fig9_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.9
Fetal hydrocele (arrows). Notice the topic testis (t)


A385010_1_En_11_Fig10_HTML.jpg


Fig. 11.10
Fetal hydrocele and dilated penile urethra (arrow)

Dec 28, 2017 | Posted by in GYNECOLOGY | Comments Off on Genitals
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes