OBSTETRICS

Multifetal Pregnancy

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Multifetal Pregnancy

The mother may also experience higher obstetrical morbidity and mortality rates. These also increase with the number of fetuses (Mhyre, 2012; Wen, 2004). In a study of more than 44,000…

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Hypertensive Disorders

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Hypertensive Disorders

Diagnosis of Hypertensive Disorders Hypertension is diagnosed empirically when appropriately taken blood pressure exceeds 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic. Korotkoff phase V is used to define…

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Fetal Imaging

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Fetal Imaging

Technology and Safety The real-time image on the ultrasound screen is produced by sound waves that are reflected back from fluid and tissue interfaces of the fetus, amnionic fluid, and…

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Intrapartum Assessment

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Intrapartum Assessment

Internal (Direct) Electronic Monitoring The fetus can be monitored electronically by direct or indirect methods. Direct fetal heart measurement is accomplished by attaching a bipolar spiral electrode directly to the…

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Preterm Labor

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Preterm Labor

Steer (2005) observed that signs of immaturity at birth and shorter than average gestational length have an unusually high incidence in Homo sapiens compared with other mammals. This has been…

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Implantation and Placental Development

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Implantation and Placental Development

FIGURE 5-1 Gonadotropin control of the ovarian and endometrial cycles. The ovarian-endometrial cycle has been structured as a 28-day cycle. The follicular phase (days 1 to 14) is characterized by…

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Prenatal Care

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Prenatal Care

FIGURE 9-1 Percentage of women in the United States with prenatal care beginning in the first trimester by ethnicity in 1989, 2001, and 2006. (Adapted from Martin, 2002b, 2009.) TABLE…

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Obstetrical Hemorrhage

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Obstetrical Hemorrhage

Mechanisms of Normal Hemostasis A major concept in understanding the pathophysiology and management of obstetrical hemorrhage is the mechanism by which hemostasis is achieved after normal delivery. Recall that near…

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Normal Labor

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Normal Labor

Fetal Lie The relation of the fetal long axis to that of the mother is termed fetal lie and is either longitudinal or transverse. Occasionally, the fetal and the maternal…

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Embryogenesis and Fetal Morphological Development

Feb 6, 2017 by in OBSTETRICS Comments Off on Embryogenesis and Fetal Morphological Development

Figure 7-1 Terminology used to describe the pregnancy duration. Clinicians customarily calculate gestational age as menstrual age. Approximately 280 days, or 40 weeks, elapse on average between the first day…

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